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After following the [[Mesh/WalkThrough]], you are probably just an isolated node on the virtual People's Open Network. If you want to become part of the physical mesh, you are going to need to extend the signal from home node using what we call an extender node. An extender node is just a roof-mounted, directional antenna used to make point-to-point connections between two locations that have line-of-sight (LOS) to one another. Preparing an extender node generally consists to two stages, downgrading the proprietary AirOS firmware and flashing it with our custom build of OpenWrt. == Download Downgrading to older AirOS == Typically, we use Ubiquiti equipment for our extender nodes. These come with a proprietary firmware called AirOS. Any extender node with version 5.6 of AirOS and above needs to be downgraded to a 5.5.XX version of AirOS version before you can flash it with OpenWRT.  First check what version of AirOS your extender node is running, to do this,  * Edit your network settings to reflect the following: * Network Manager Method: Manual** IP Address: (some devices will only accept from this IP)** Subnet Mask:** Gateway: (Or leave blank) You can also use the commands: sudo ip link set <eth_interface> down sudo ip addr add dev <eth_interface> sudo ip link set <eth_interface> up where <eth_interface> is the name of your ethernet interface found using `ip addr` (common names include eth0, enp3s0, ...) * Plug one Ethernet cable into your laptop on one end and into the "LAN" port of the Power-over-Ethernet (PoE) power supply on the other end. * Plug another Ethernet cable into your extender node on one end and into the "POE" port of the PoE power supply on the other end. * Power on the extender node by plugging in the PoE and wait for it to boot (may take a few minutes). * Make sure you aren't connected to a wifi network that has an 192.168.1.x IP range. Disconnect/disable your wifi if necessary. * In a browser, go to the AirOS web interface at * Log in using the credentials ** username: ubnt ** password: ubnt * Look at the Firmware information, it may say something like XM.v5.6.6.bin or XW.v5.6.6, based on this download the correct version of AirOS v5.5.10 {| class="wikitable"! Version !! Firmware Image File For a |-| XW v5.5.10 |||-| XM v5.5.10 |||-| TI v5.5.11 |||} * Back in the web interface, go to the "System" tab.* Click the "Browse" button next to the "Upload Firmware" box * Select the firmware image you just downloaded* Click "Upload".* After uploading you will be asked if you want to upgrade/install the firmware. Click yes/accept.* Ignore any warnings about changing the default admin password, we're gonna overwrite it anyway* Let the router finish flashing and wait for it to fully reboot.* After it reboots, you may wanna go back into the web interface to make sure the downgrade was successful before proceeding. XM.v6.0.4 (v6.0.4) firmware version does not appear to be downgradable via the preceding method. Instead you will need to use command-line method as follows,  ssh-keygen -f "/home/yourusername/.ssh/known_hosts" -R scp <firmware_image.bin> ubnt@ ssh ubnt@ # password is "ubnt" /sbin/fwupdate -m  == Flash the Extender Node ==Now that you have successfully downgraded the AirOS firmware, we can go ahead with flashing it with our custom build of OpenWRT. Start by downloading our firmware image for your model of extender node,
The extender nodes that we currently support are:
{| class="wikitable"
! Name !! Model No. Notes !! OpenWRT Doc !! Firmware Image
| Ubiquiti Nanostation M2 and M5 || NSM5 Newer models need [[#Downgrading_to_earlier_AirOS|AirOS downgrade]] before flashing! Note that this will almost certainly require a USB to Serial connection (see below).|| [ OpenWRT Docs] || firmware: [ pre 2015M5 versions and all M2 versions] or [ 2015-2016M5 versions]
| Ubiquiti Nanostation M2 Picostation 2 || NSM2 Not being built in current firmware release, Previous generation 802.11g (not the same as M2) || [ picostation2 OpenWRT Docs] || [ firmware image]
| Ubiquiti Picostation 2 M2 || || [ picostationm2 OpenWRT Docs] || [ firmware image]
| Ubiquiti Picostation Nanobeam M2 and M5 || NBE‑M2‑13 and NBE‑M5‑16 work but some (earlier?) NBE‑M5‑19 have ethernet port issues. Newer models need [[#Downgrading_to_earlier_AirOS|AirOS downgrade]] before flashing! || [ nanobeam OpenWRT Docs] || [ firmware image]
| Ubiquiti Nanobeam Nanobridge M2 and M5 || || Same as pre-2015 Nanostation M || [ OpenWRT Docsfledgling/0.2.2/ar71xx.extender-node/openwrt-ar71xx-generic-ubnt-nano-m-squashfs-factory.bin firmware image] ||
| Ubiquiti Bullet M2 and M5 || || [ OpenWRT Docs] || [ firmware image]
More firmware images can be found at
Also, if you are flashing for practice or testing, you can try using the dev-builds here,, NOTE: USE WITH CARE, THESE PROVIDE SSH ACCESS WITH A DEFAULT PASSWORD AND SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR DEPLOYMENT NODES
== Flash the Extender Node ==
* Configure your wired internet settings to use Manual IPv4 settings with IP:, subnet:, gateway: interface as instructed in the previous sections* Plug one Ethernet cable into your laptop on one end and into the "LAN" port of the powerPower-over-ethernet Ethernet (PoE) power supply on the other end. * Plug another Ethernet cable into your antenna extender node on one end and into the "POE" port of the power-over-ethernet PoE power supply on the other end. 
* Push a pin into the reset hole and hold it.
* With the pin held down, plug in the power to the power-over-extender node, either by plugging in it's ethernet power supplycable or by powering on the PoE. * Watch Continue holding down the pin, watch the lights on the antenna - they will all flash together a few times, and then they will flash up back-and down-forth in what is affectionately known as cha-cha mode (or more accurately, TFTP mode)
* Once the lights on the antenna are flashing up and down, you can let go of the pin.
* You should be able to ping the extender at
$ ping
64 bytes from icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.826 ms
In your * Open a terminal (Linux terminal, typeor Mac?) and run the following:
git clone
./flasher.js '<path to firmware>'
* The terminal will tell you "should return the following, The firmware has been successfully sent to the router. In a few seconds, the router should begin flashing its four status LEDs sweeping from left to right, then right to left (or up down, down up). This means that the router is flashing itself with the new firmware. Once the router goes back to having only the power LED lit, the router has been successfully flashed."
* Wait until the antenna has only the power LED lit and you're done.
* Reconfigure your machine with the following static network configuration.** IP address: ** Subnet mask:** Gateway:
* IP Address: Or use the commands sudo ip link set <eth_interface> down sudo ip addr add dev <eth_interface> sudo ip link set <eth_interface> up* Subnet mask:* Gateway: 0where <eth_interface> is the name of your ethernet interface found using `ip addr` (common names include eth0, enp3s0, .0.0.0)
See Network Configuration Guides: [ Linux] [ Mac]
64 bytes from icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.398 ms
Once configured with our firmware, an extender node will not start broadcasting an SSID until it is plugged into a home node because it must first get a mesh IP address.
If you have a mynet n600 or n750, you can get a mesh IP for your extender node by plugging the LAN cable that was plugged into your computer into to port one or two on the back of the home node.
The mesh IP that the extender node receives is the IP of the home node plus one or two. For example, if your home node broadcasts the SSID " 65.21.65" corresponding to the IP, then your extender node will receive either an IP or either or Once plugged into this home node, the extender node should broadcast the SSID " 65.21.66" or ".67" as well as the ad-hoc network, "" (you may not see these if your computer's WiFi antenna is only 2.4 GHz)
== Extender Testing and Network Detection == If you flashed your extender node with a dev-build of the firmware, you should now be able to ssh into to it.It is probably easiest to first ssh in to your home node over the private interface and then into the extender node with its mesh IP. First, you should immediately change or disable the root password and instead add your ssh key to `/etc/dropbear/authorized_key` (this method of login will not work when sshing through a home node) passwd Once ssh'ed into the extender node, there are few files you can play around with,`/etc/config/wireless` sets the names of the SSIDs broadcast by the antenna, you may want to change the name of the ad-hoc interface so as to distinguish it from home node's ad-hoc networkTrying changing it to something like "", then reboot the extender node and check if you can see the new name in your network list. YNext, you my be curious what you can see with your antenna, to scan for other visible networks, ssh in to the extender node and run the following, iw dev mesh0 scan | grep SSID:This should return a lengthy list of SSID, if you can see another "" SSID, you should be meshing with it automatically. If you'd like to view more info about the network you can see, you can pipe the output of the previous command to a log file like so, iw dev mesh0 scan > scan log Once you are done meshing around with your extender node make sure to reset the root password with passwd or reflash the router with the standard build of our firmware.
Log into your home node via SSH, and tail <tt>/var/log/messages</tt>
There should be a debug message in the log from notdhcpserver concerning the extender node.
== Troubleshooting ==
sudo minicom -D /dev/ttyUSB0 -o -b 115200 -8
In Minicom, CTRL-A to get settings, then Press O, to access settings. Mac users will need to discover the proper META key to use with their Terminal program. iTerm uses the 'ESC' key.
Go to Serial Port Setup, use these settings:


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